Sunday, March 15, 2020
10 Amazing Fantasy Novels You Need to Read Now From feminist fantasy to African mythology to Muslim writers inspired by ancient Arabia, weve compiled a list of some amazing (and wonderfully diverse) fantasy novels you need to read if you love the genre. Many on this list are new authors who have recently published their debut fantasy novel, or established authors who have made it to the New York Times Bestsellers list with a fresh foray into fantasy after publishing in other genres.Whether youre looking for a coming-of-age Young Adult fantasy story or an old-school dive into the Dungeons Dragons universe, there should be something on this list just right for your tastes. New fantasy authors are subverting and reinventing the genre, opening up a golden age in fantasy writing, so happy reading!New fantasy authors are subverting and reinventing the genre, opening up a golden age in fantasy writing. Photo by Matteo Kutufa on Unsplash.The Womens War by Jenna GlassPraised as an epic feminist fantasy for the #MeToo era, The Womens War is Jenna Glasss debut fantasy novel and is the tale of a revolutionary spell that gives women the ability to control their own fertility. Set in neighboring kingdoms ruled by kings and noblemen, the tale offers imaginative worldbuilding coupled with magic that only women can wield- magic which threatens to tear down the patriarchal structure in which women are nothing more than property and bargaining chips. When a young disinherited daughter of a king and a widowed mother of two adolescent children discover it, their world and experience as women will never be the same.Getting Wilde By Jenn StarkAs the first book in the 11-volume Immortal Vegas series, Jenn Starks Getting Wilde has been praised by critics as hilarious, sexy, and thrillingly high action. This urban fantasy series follows Sara Wilde, a magical artifacts hunter and rescuer of young psychics being sold on the black market. With the help of a Tarot deck, she helps clients find things- magical things, in fact. When a new job offers her a big payday, the stakes include breaking into the Vatican and getting too close for comfort to the Devil.Enter Saras most mysterious client, the wickedly sexy Magician, with a job that could yield the ultimate payday. All shell have to do is get behind Vatican walls... and steal the Devil himself. Complete with an ancient and mysterious magical Council, militant forces seeking to destroy all magic, demigods, twisting catacombs and Rome and Vegas rowdy nightlife, Sara confronts the underworld of magic in an exciting read that is hard to put down.We Hunt the Flame by Hafsah FaizalJust released this month, Hafsah Faizals debut fantasy novel, We Hunt the Flame, is hailed as lyrical and spellbinding and Paste Magazine listed it in its Top 10 Most Anticipated YA Novels of 2019. With its inspiration drawn from ancient Arabia, We Hunt the Flame tells the story of Zafira, a huntress who disguises herself as a man while braving cursed forests and feeding her people with her k ills.Living in the same kingdom is a young man known as the Prince of Death, who carries out assassinations for anyone who defies his father, the sultan, and whose compassionate nature must be hidden beneath a brutal exterior and family expectations. As war brews and danger finds them both, these young characters seek an ancient, magical artifact to achieve different aims. Its a story of bravery, self-revelation, and identity set in a lush world full of magic and mystery.Perfekt Order (The Ãâ re Saga) (Volume 1) by S.T. BendePerfekt Order by S.T. Bende is another YA fantasy should be on your list of must-read books, especially if you enjoy witty, well-rounded characters and Norse mythology. It tells the story of seventeen-year-old Mia AhlstrÃ ¶m, an engineering student at Redwood State University, who meets an arrogant, overprotective Tyr Fredriksen at her first college party. But Tyr is not what he seems- or rather, is much more than he seems. Hes actually the Norse God of War, on Earth to protect a valuable Asgardian treasure, and Mia, too, if shell let him. The repartee in this book make it a fast, fun read.Empire of Sand (The Books of Ambha) by Tasha SuriTasha Suris debut fantasy novel, Empire of Sand, tells the story of Mehr, an illegitimate yet privileged daughter born to a nobleman father and magical, nomadic mother who she never knew. Inheriting her mothers magical gifts of controlling the dreams of the gods, Mehr captures the attention of the Emperors mystics, who persuade her to use her magic to help build the Empire. This Mughal India-inspired novel contains a darkly woven story that is as original as it is impressive, prompting one reviewer to state, I am beginning to think that we are at a new golden age of fantasy literature.A Darker Shade of Magic: A Novel by V.E. SchwabVictoria V.E. Schwab is a #1 New York Times bestselling author of more than a dozen books and the first book in her Shades of Magic trilogy, A Darker Shade of Magic, is arguab ly her writing at its best. Lyrically compelling and haunting, A Darker Shade of Magic tells the story of Kell, a magician and smuggler with a rare ability to travel between parallel Londons defined by a color- Red, Grey, White, and Black. Each London has a varying relationship with magic, and those who practice it, and the book is equal parts fantasy, romance, inter-dimensional travel, and adventure combined with a strong female character who is intriguing from the start.Perdido Street Station by China MiÃ ©villeHaving won both the Arthur C. Clarke Award and the British Fantasy Award, China MiÃ ©ville, London-based author of Perdido Street Station, knows how to use equal parts magic and science to build fantastical worlds that are not for the faint of heart. For this novel, he weaves a dystopian society beneath towering ribs of an ancient beast, and inhabitants of it that include both humans and arcane races in a steam-punk inspired, cross-species filled setting. The main charact er is Isaac, a scientist who conducts experiments for a half-bird/half-human entity, and feeds a growing caterpillar hallucinogenic drugs only to soon discover its true, horrific intent. This novel includes gore, sex, immoral experimentation, and technobabble, but offers plenty for fantasy-lovers to digest (pun intended).The God Catcher by Erin M. EvansIf you are a fan of Dungeons Dragons, you should add The God Catcher by Erin M. Evans to your fantasy reading list. Set in the City of Splendors, part of the Forgotten Realms created by Ed Greenwood, this is a coming-of-age story about Tennora, a bookish yet renegade young lady who desperately wants to be a wizard. She finds the opportunity upon meeting Clytemorrenestrix, who claims to be a dragon, only to later be warned that the dragon woman is not all she claims to be. In fact, shes dangerous, and Tennoras life could be in peril by participating in her malevolent plans.Black Leopard, Red Wolf (The Dark Star Trilogy) by Marlon Jame sBlack Leopard, Red Wolf by Jamaican-born Marlon James is the first novel in Jamess Dark Star trilogy, combining African mythology and history with unforgettable and fantastical adventure. It is a non-linear narrative revealing the story of Tracker, noted for his hunting skills, who is hired to find a boy who disappeared three years ago. He finds himself in the company of a diverse group of unusual characters with the same purpose in mind, one of which is a shape-shifting man-animal known as Leopard. Questioning who is telling the truth and why the young boy is being sought after so desperately, Tracker learns that theres much more to life than his usual, solitary lifestyle.Empty Monsters (The Books of Oreyn) by Cat HellisenCat Hellisens Empty Monsters is a coming-of-age tale of family expectations and finding ones own path as much as it is about the family were born into versus the family we choose. After discovering a magical lineage- the very lineage his family has sworn to rid t he world of for generations- the main character, Aden, immerses himself in an experience that he was once taught to fear. In doing so, he learns a truth about who the real monsters are and his role in their collective story. One reviewer notes, This isnt your typical swashbuckling, sword-and-sorcery style fantasy. Its quiet and introspective, more character study than adventure.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Tools of Managerial Economics - Essay Example Competitive markets, Market power and imperfect markets are the three main areas of interest in managerial economics. Managerial economics underlies the basic factors which monitor the process of a manager - the external and internal factors. As the implies the internal factors lie in the purview of a manager and correspondingly microeconomics define the basic tenets of managerial economics. Thus managerial economics has a more limited scope - it is more application of microeconomics to managerial issues. Thus when we try to analyze a basically macroeconomic phenomenon, the fall of the Socialistic regime in Eastern Europe, we will be basically analyzing the forces which defined the characteristics of different markets in this market under several external forces, the most important being government intervention. Individuals are found to share common motivations that lead them to behave rationally in making economic choices - this is the foundation of managerial economics. This implies that an individual who, when faced the same choices at two different times, will behave in the same way during both the times (Varian 2005). The entire conceptual base is economics is built on the theory of Demand and Supply - the main pillars on which the subject stands. Thinking of the buying process as a contest, demand and supply are the forces which monitor and shape the strategies that the two sides adopt in the market. The aspect of nations it is demand and supply again which determine the level and efficiency in the macro levels of economic activity. The political and economic systems built by the communists in eastern Europe started on its route to collapse by 1973. A prime economic problem of allocation occurred - the planners in this socialist economy stressed on the allocation of a large share of its GNP to in armaments production and heavy industries. This investment, done at the cost of living, led to the immobilization of a large number of resources. Thus the U.S.S.R. was at one time leading the world in the production of several primary goods like coal, oil, electricity, steel, and cement, which was not getting reflected in the final products or finished goods. When one tries to understand the reason for the collapse of the system in U.S.S.R, one should realize that this is a classic example of how the extreme government expenditure has caused a nation's economy to go bankrupt. This is a classic example of a situation where a perfect market has been suppressed - factors of production were being employed at abnormal prices and market demand was being met by a monopolist - the state here. Economists and managers alike, build models of economic behaviour by inductive reasoning. The model is tested with actual empirical data. If the tests support the model, it can be accepted; otherwise, it should be revised. The situation in eastern Europe has thrown across several important information Ã¢â¬â like the growth of an economy in the midst of severe administrative bottlenecks, the lack of meaningful foreign trade, and political dissonance.Ã Ã
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
International Business of Botswana Country - Essay Example When Botswana appeared on the face of the map, there was no army for the defence and protection of the country. In 1977 Botswana Defence Force was formed and today almost 12000 armed men are an integral part of the system (Botswana, 2007). The government of Botswana has perfectly maintain the outflow of diamonds for the economic well being of the country and from last three decades Botswana is a leader in the production of quality diamonds. Thus, the revenue generated from diamond mining is very rightly used to carry out the essential expenditures of the country (Background Note: Botswana, 2007). The other chief sources of income in Botswana include tourism and cattle industry. Before 1971 the market was based on agriculture and farming, but then diamond mining started that heightened the economic growth and also increased the per capita income of the country as compared to many other African countries (The World Fact Book, 2007). Whenever we consider the economic structure of a place, we cannot deny the fact that there are some threatening issues related to that area which have an immense effect on the expansion and progression of the nation. Similarly, Botswana is dealing with the victims of HIV- AIDS as the country has the second highest infection rate and as a result huge amounts are needed to tackle the problem every year (Structure of the economy, 2007). In addition to it, the nation is also facing crisis in the employment sector. A large number of population is unemployed and the government is taking keen interest in facilitating the service sector. Cultural values of Botswana In the northern areas of Botswana trained and skilful women are working in their villages. They are famous for weaving and crafting. Moreover, few writers of that part of the world are famous for their work primarily Bessie Head, who wrote about Botswana until her death in 1986 (Binsbergen, 2002). In the same manner people from different fields have entered the global market in order to promote the culture of Botswana and to strengthen its economy in the world (Botswana, 2007). Botswana - International trade today and 25 years back After the independence of Botswana in 1966, agriculture had been its major economic sector. Its main emphasis had been on agricultural goods which shared about forty percent (40%) of the Gross Domestic Product of Botswana and forms the basic exports of the country. Even today the primary sector contributes highest to the country's GDP, which now, not only includes agricultural goods but also mining. Now Botswana is on the path of diversification. It is working hard to diverse its economy and emphasizing more on manufacturing goods and mining than on agricultural goods. Its main manufacturing products include meat products, dairy products, textiles, chemical and leather products, wooden products and many others. In 1983 the mining sector contributed 52.6 percent to the GDP (Kapunda, 2003, 3). The major exports of Botswana are focused to Common custom area, USA, UK, Zimbabwe and to other European countries. In the year 1985 the total exports of Botswa
Friday, January 31, 2020
According to Crapo Acculturation Essay According to Crapo, Acculturation is what happens when members of one culture adopt the beliefs and/or behaviors of another group. Our textbook states Ã¢â¬ Although both societies may change as a result of prolonged contact, the politically or economically less powerful of the two is likely to experience the most dramatic acculturative changes as they adopt the language and certain other cultural traits of the dominant cultureÃ¢â¬ (Crapo, 2013). My heart felt so heavy when watching this 40 minute film. I could not help but feel a rush of emotions and for what those children and their parents went through. As a mother, I could not imagine someone taking my child from me and shipping them away to a boarding school. Those children were tortured, beat, and worked to death, and the girls were even sexually assaulted. Once the children were released they had no self-worth. They felt like they were unable to fit in amongst society, and most importantly with their tribe. See more: The stages of consumer buying decision process essay The film never mentioned the actual reason the American Government decided to acculturate the Native Americans into Western culture. There could be several reasons they chose to do so. The first one that comes to mind is power. They also may have done this to use them for cheap labor. Another possibility as to why the American Government could have acculturated the Native Americans is because they feared what they were capable of. Acculturating others into another culture is justifiable as long as they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t being forced to do so against their own will. When someone is forced into acculturating it effects them badly, in a negative way. Also, it is unfair that individuals are punished for acculturating, especially when it was against their own will to begin with. References Crapo, R. H. (2013). Cultural Anthropology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. Givens, S. F. (Producer). (2011). Indian school: Stories of survival [Video]. Lincoln Park, MI: American Indian Services, Inc. Retrieved from the Films On Demand database.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Defining Beauty for Men and Women in Portraiture " ... A thing of beauty is a joy forever : It's loveliness increases ; it will never Pass into nothingness ... " What is beauty? Seemingly a continually evolving and infinitely elusive ideal - mankind has been obsessed with the concept of beauty throughout the ages. Portraiture, as an essential channel of visual communication, has traditionally been the medium through which definitions of beauty are graphically expressed. Particularly in the Renaissance where portraiture often served celebratory or commemorative purposes, it was crucial that portraits were accepted as aesthetically pleasing reflections of the social ideals of the time. Hence by comparing and contrasting a range of different portraits of depicting men and women of the Renaissance such as TitianÃ¢â¬â¢s La Bella, BronzinoÃ¢â¬â¢s Eleonora de Medici, Sofonisba AnguissolaÃ¢â¬â¢s Self Portrait, VasariÃ¢â¬â¢s Alessandro de Medici, BronzinoÃ¢â¬â¢s Cosimo de Medici as Orpheus and Pedro BerrugueteÃ¢â¬â¢s Portrait of Federico da Mentelfeltro, viewers can gain an understanding of the conceptual differences in definitions of masc uline and feminine beauty during this period. TitianÃ¢â¬â¢s La Bella Ã¢â¬â Portrait of a Woman in a Blue Dress (1536) is a captivating example of Renaissance ritratto (portraiture) demonstrating ideals of feminine beauty. It presents the image of a vibrant young woman. With smooth, light skin tone and delicate rounded face the woman is clearly defined as an exceptional beauty. Framed at a slight angle to the picture frame, La Bella emerges from the dark neutral background with subtly averted gaze, at once both inviting and refrained. Through the conflict of La BellaÃ¢â¬â¢s seductive yet submissive presentation, the portrait captures the essence of Renaissance female beauty perfectly, presenting the mildly sensual nature of the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s image as a joy in itself. To complement her dignified demeanour, La Bella wears an amazingly intricate and extravagant blue gown. For a period when women were without a public voice and remained dependant on signs of visual identity such as clothing and jewellery, such a display of finery implies significant wealth and social status. Considering the seductive rendering of the fabric utilising costly lapis lazuli, it is clear Titian desired to present an image of ultimate feminine loveliness. The portrait is free from overt art... ...re often used as vital means of propaganda communication. Beyond these conventional images we have such images as Cosimo de Medici as Orpheus and Self Portrait by Sofonisba. Which, although rare, were recognised as beautiful portraits of the time, and present and much more unusual and intriguing visions of beauty. Through the exploration of this diverse range portraiture, the contrasting ideals of masculine and feminine beauty in the Renaissance have been explored. Yet overall, no matter what the gender orientation of the subject, it the discovery of such passionate and artistic talent presented which is essentially Ã¢â¬ËbeautifulÃ¢â¬â¢. Consequently, the grand appeal of such glorious images is still appreciated today, and will continue to delight viewers for generations to come. Bibliography Paola Tingali Women in Italian Renaissance Art (Manchester 1997) Geraldine A. Johnson & Sara Greico Picturing Women in Renaissance and Baroque Italy (Cambridge 1997) Patricia Simons Portraiture: Facing the Subject ed Woodhall (Manchester 1997) Lorne Campbell Renaissance Portraits (Yale 1990) Alison Cole Art of the Italian Renaissance Courts (Everyman Art Library 1997)
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
With constant advances in technology, children are finding new ways of spending their afternoons. Instead of playing catch outside or riding their bikes to a neighbor's house, many children have resorted to sitting in front of a television and playing their favorite video game.Some people believe that video games do not have a serious effect on young children. However, research has repeatedly proven that violence in video games is having a negative effect on kids and the way they behave. Some of the games can increase a person's aggressive thoughts and make them behave very violently.Video games provoke violent thoughts and actions as the games are becoming too graphic for the kids and they're giving them knowledge about the utilization of guns and fighting skills. The video games are making kids act out violent crimes and making them very aggressive because sometimes they think it's acceptable to do what the characters do. Violent video games also have an immediate effect on a child 's mood, mind, and their brain development.Many kids enjoyed playing violent games because they were very entertaining to play and there was a lot of action and excitement in them. Also it was a rush for the kids to shoot people and blow things up. In a study that was done, which researched video game playing among 357 seventh and eighth grade students? The kids were asked to pick their favorite type of video game among five categories.The category that was most preferred was games that involved violence. Nearly 32% of the kids said they liked violent video games over any other type of game. Less than 2% of the children enjoyed playing educational games. (Funk, 86-90) The reason the students gave for liking violent video games more was that there is so much action in them and you can never get bored.Although video games are designed to be entertaining, challenging, and sometimes educational, most include violent content and many have very explicit graphics. The problem is that even though they are games, the ones involving shooting can teach some real skills about using weapons. A person who becomes good at handling a pistol or shotgun to kill fake enemies on a television screen can very easily turn those skills onto real people.And, in the process of playing the game, one becomes desensitized to the horror of real killing. Thus, if the killing ever does become real, it is carried out with a complete lack of empathy for the victims. There was an analysis done which showed that 89% of games showed some sort of violence (Children Now, 5-6), and that almost half of the video games that are out in the stores showed some extreme violence to other characters in the game. (Dietz, 425-42)Therefore, most of the games being bought by children contain some sort of violence in them. So violent video games are now becoming more popular and research has shown that these games are having negative effects on children. Kids sometimes don't realize that these games are only for fun and they shouldn't imitate what the game does. Thus, games sometimes can confuse reality with fantasy.For example, in games like Goldeneye 007 bad guys no longer disappear when they are killed. Instead they get killed in a very violent way with blood going all over the place. For example, those shot in the neck fall to the ground and blood squirts out their necks that cause them to grab their throats. Games like Unreal Tournament and Half-Life are very explicit and are very gorier.When characters get shot blood goes all over the place and when they fall there is blood surrounding the dead body. Also sometimes explosives are used and when they throw it at characters they blow up into small pieces. (APA, 78/4) Even though these games are so graphic, violent video games are the most popular games to be sold today.When these games came out kids were very addicted to them and some people believe that because the games are so graphic and violent the gamers are showing more aggressive tendencies after playing these violent games.There are many kids in which are becoming very violent and aggressive over the video games. In a study by Karen E. Dill violent video games increase aggression more then violent movies or television shows due to their interactive and engrossing nature. The two studies showed if a child is already aggressive they are now even vulnerable to violent video games and even if they get a brief exposure to the games it can increase their aggressive behavior. (Dill)There has been some research that has been done which demonstrates individual differences in response to the effects of violent video games. For example, a couple of studies showed that trait hostility might moderate the effects of playing video games.Lynch has found that the physiological effects of playing violent video games may be even greater for children who already show more aggressive tendencies. Adolescents who scored in the top quintile for trait hostility showed greater incr eases in mean arterial pressure, epinephrine, and nor-epinephrine levels in the blood than those in lower quintiles. (Lynch, 152)Therefore video games cause aggression and violence in children because they are interactive, realistically portray violence, and dangerously appeal to children. Violent video games also have an immediate effect on a child's mood, mind, and there brain development. Because they have encountered so much warfare, and gun-use in video games, children act as if they have to always be on-guard. Through many studies, scientists have observed that children develop a defiant attitude. They come to believe that every one is against them and consequently take advantage of every opportunity to create conflict.Obviously, violence is not an acceptable way of solving conflicts, especially for young children. The violence can also affect children's minds when they sleep. The article, Ã¢â¬Å"Media ViolenceÃ¢â¬ states that video games have significant effects on childre n such as nightmares when sleeping and fear of being harmed (Gentile, 19-37).The violence comes back in their dreams and severely scares them. For example, a seven-year-old boy, John Paul, played a violent video game every day after school for a month last year with his older brother. Every night, around 10:30pm, he would run into his parents' bedroom crying because he had seen the images from the game trying to attack him in his dream.These effects on a child's mind are powerful. With video games, children are repeatedly exposed to excessive violence and subconsciously fear the consequences of the enemies in their games. For young children, this fear of harm is real. In their still undeveloped minds, virtual violence is no different that actual violence. Video game violence is the most dangerous and influential in children under eight years old because their memories recall the violence as actually occurring. The first eight years of a child's life are the most important years of b rain development (Gentile, 19-37).Studies have shown that during this time, their minds cannot distinguish reality from fantasy when the events become memories (Gentile, 19-37). Therefore, when a child plays violent video games, those memories are stored in his mind as a vivid reality.Ã¢â¬Å"Because children younger than the age of 8 cannot discriminate between fantasy and reality, they are uniquely vulnerable to learning and adopting as reality the circumstances, attitudes, and behaviors portrayed [by video games],Ã¢â¬ (Anderson, 772-90). The violence affects children heavily, causing nightmares, anti-social attitudes, and an exaggerated fear of harm (Gentile, 19-37).Many games are limiting the amount of violence they put in their game and also many games are being banned from the shelves because they are too violent.Also parents are setting guidelines for the types of video games their children play and being aware of the content in their children's video games. Because the you nger the child, the more impressionable he or she is, and less experienced in evaluating content.Ã¢â¬ Even though a child may be chronologically a certain age, their social and emotional level of maturity may be different. Parents need to decide what is in the best interest of their children.Ã¢â¬ (Anderson, 772-90) Thus there have been many strides made, to try to restrict some of the violence in these video games and limit what is children play.As children grow up in their household, they are sometimes rewarded for kind and caring behavior. Many parents expect their children to treat one another with respect and love. By constant exposure to gruesome violence, the nature of video games makes this peaceful environment impossible to achieve.Video games cause aggression and anti-social attitudes in children because they are interactive, realistically portray violence, and dangerously appeal to children. They are having such a negative effect on kids and are becoming a major probl em in America. Society must become aware of these effects caused by video games so that we can promote a peaceful and loving generation of children that respect everyone and everything.Works Cited:Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill. Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and Life. Ã¢â¬Å"Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78 (2000): 772-790.Children Now. Fair Play? Violence, Gender and Race in Video Games. Los Angeles, CA: Children Now, 2001. 5-6Dietz, T.L. (1998). Ã¢â¬Å"An Examination of Violence and Gender Role Portrayals in Video Games: Implications For Gender Socialization and Aggressive Behavior. Sex Roles 38 (1998): 425-442.Funk, J.B. Ã¢â¬Å"Reevaluating the Impact of Video Games.Ã¢â¬ Clinical Pediatrics 32, 2 Feb. 1993: 86-90.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Known for: wife of Thomas Jefferson, died before he took office as U.S. President.Dates: October 19, 1748 - September 6, 1782Also known as: Martha Eppes Wayles, Martha Skelton, Martha Eppes Wayles Skelton JeffersonReligion: Anglican Background, Family Father: John Wayles (1715-1773; English immigrant, barrister, and landowner)Mother: Martha Eppes Wayles (1712-1748; daughter of English immigrants)John Wayles and Martha Eppes married on May 3, 1746Martha Jefferson had ten half-siblings: one (who died young) from her fathers second marriage to Mary Cocke; three half-sisters from her fathers third marriage to Elizabeth Lomax; and three half-sisters and three half-brothers by her fathers slave and mistress, Betsy Hemings; one of the half-sisters was Sally Hemings, later a mistress of Thomas Jefferson. Marriage, Children Husband: Thomas Jefferson (married January 1, 1772; Virginia planter, lawyer, member of the Virginia House of Delegates, Virginia governor, and, after Marthas death, U.S. President)Five children: only two survived to adulthood:Martha Patsy Jefferson (1772-1836; married Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr.)Mary Maria or Polly Jefferson Eppes (1778-1804; married John Wayles Eppes)Jane Randolph Jefferson (1774-1775)unnamed son (1777)Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson (1780-1781)Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson (1782-1785) Martha Jefferson Biography Martha Jeffersons mother, Martha Eppes Wayles, died less than three weeks after her daughter was born. John Wayles, her father, married two more times, bringing two stepmothers into young Marthas life: Mary Cocke and Elizabeth Lomax. Martha Eppes had also brought to the marriage an African slave, a woman, and that womans daughter, Betty or Betsy, whose father was the English captain of the slave ship, Captain Hemings. Captain Hemings tried to buy the mother and daughter from John Wayles, but Wayles refused. Betsy Hemings later had six children by John Wayles who were thus half-siblings of Martha Jefferson; one of them was Sally Hemings (1773-1835), who was later to play an important part in the life of Thomas Jefferson. Education and First Marriage Martha Jefferson had no known formal education but was tutored at her family home, The Forest, near Williamsburg, Virginia. She was an accomplished pianist and harpsichordist. In 1766, at 18, Martha married Bathurst Skelton, a neighboring planter, who was the brother of her stepmother Elizabeth Lomaxs first husband. Bathurst Skelton died in 1768; they had one son, John, who died in 1771. Thomas Jefferson Martha married again, on New Years Day, 1772, this time to a lawyer and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, Thomas Jefferson. They went to live in a cottage on his land where he would later build the mansion, at Monticello. The Hemings Siblings When Martha Jeffersons father died in 1773, Martha and Thomas inherited his land, debts, and slaves, including five of Marthas Hemings half-sisters and half-brothers. Three-quarters white, the Hemingses had a more privileged position than most slaves; James and Peter served as cooks at Monticello, James accompanying Thomas to France and learning culinary arts there. James Hemings and an older brother, Robert, were eventually freed. Critta and Sally Hemings took care of Martha and Thomas two daughters, and Sally accompanied them to France after Marthas death. Thenia, the only one sold, was sold to James Monroe, a friend and fellow Virginia, and another future President. Martha and Thomas Jefferson had five daughters and one son; only Martha (called Patsy) and Maria or Mary (called Polly) survived to adulthood. Virginia Politics Martha Jeffersons many pregnancies were a strain on her health. She was often ill, including once with smallpox. Jeffersons political activities often took him away from home, and Martha likely accompanied him sometimes. He served, during their marriage, in Williamsburg as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates, in Williamsburg and then Richmond as Virginias governor, and in Philadelphia as a member of the Continental Congress (where he was the main writer of the Declaration of Independence in 1776). He was offered a position as commissioner to France but turned it down to remain near his wife. The British Invade In January 1781, the British invaded Virginia, and Martha had to flee from Richmond to Monticello, where her youngest baby, just months old, died in April. In June, the British raided Monticello and the Jeffersons escaped to their Poplar Forest home, where Lucy, 16 months old, died. Jefferson resigned as governor. Marthas Last Child In May of 1782, Martha Jefferson bore another child, another daughter. Marthas health was irreparably damaged, and Jefferson described her condition as dangerous. Martha Jefferson died on September 6 of 1782, at 33. Their daughter, Patsy, later wrote that her father isolated himself in his room for three weeks of grief. Thomas and Marthas last daughter died at three of whooping cough. Polly and Patsy Jefferson accepted the position as commissioner to France. He brought Patsy to France in 1784 and Polly joined them later. Thomas Jefferson never remarried. He became U.S. President in 1801, nineteen years after Martha Jefferson died. Maria (Polly) Jefferson married her first cousin John Wayles Eppes, whose mother, Elizabeth Wayles Eppes, was a half-sister of her mother. John Eppes served in the U.S. Congress, representing Virginia, for a time during Thomas Jeffersons presidency, and he stayed with his father-in-law at the White House during that time. Polly Eppes died in 1804, while Jefferson was president; like her mother and maternal grandmother, she died shortly after giving birth. Martha (Patsy) Jefferson married Thomas Mann Randolph, who served in Congress during Jeffersons presidency. She became, mostly through correspondence and his visits to Monticello, his advisor and confidante. Widowed before he became President (Martha Jefferson was the first of six wives to die before their husbands became president), Thomas Jefferson asked Dolley Madison to serve as the public hostess at the White House. She was the wife of James Madison, then Secretary of State and the highest-ranking cabinet member; Jeffersons vice-president, Aaron Burr, was also widowed. During the winters of 1802-1803 and 1805-1806, Martha (Patsy) Jefferson Randolph lived at the White House and was the hostess for her father. Her child, James Madison Randolph, was the first child born at the White House. When James Callender published an article claiming that Thomas Jefferson had fathered children by his slave, Patsy Randolph, Polly Eppes, and Patsys children came to Washington to make a show of family support, accompanying him to public events and religious services. Patsy and her family lived with Thomas Jefferson during his retirement at Monticello; she struggled with the debts incurred by her father, which eventually led to the sale of Monticello. Patsys will included an addendum, written in 1834, with a wish that Sally Hemings be freed, but Sally Hemings died in 1835 before Patsy did in 1836.